Dungan Revolt (1862-1877)
The Dungan Revolt was a religious war in 19th-century China. It is also known as the Hui Minorities’ War and the Muslim Rebellion. The term is sometimes used to refer to the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan as well. It was an uprising by members of the Hui and other Muslim ethnic groups in China’s Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces, as well as in Xinjiang, between 1862 and 1877.
The purpose of this uprising was to develop a Muslim Emirate on the western bank of the Yellow River (Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia (excluding the Xinjiang province)), in alignment with the Christian Empire, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, on the southern bank of the Long River. A common misconception is that it was directed against the Qing Dynasty, but there is no evidence at all showing that they intended to attack the capital of Beijing. The uprising was actively encouraged by the leaders of the Taiping Rebellion. When that rebellion failed, mass-emigration of the Dungan people into Imperial Russia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan ensued. Before the war, the population of Shaanxi province totaled approximately 13 million inhabitants and at least 1,750,000 of whom were Dungan (Hui). After the war, the total population dropped down to 7 million; at least 150,000 fled. Between 1648 and 1878, approximately twelve million Han Chinese and Hui people died in ten unsuccessful uprisings. Xi’an, the capital of Shaanxi province, was the Holy city of Hui in China before the revolt, but the once-flourishing Chinese Muslim communities fell 93% after the revolt in Shaanxi province.