100 YEARS AGO

100 YEARS AGO –  April 23, 1920

Guran Tatlıoğlu

April 23, 1921

At the  end of the First  World War in 1918, the Ottoman  Empire was   defeated     with  Germany, the  victorious  states,  England,  France  and  Italy,    greece and  various  regions of  Turkey Had occupied,   including Istanbul  and  Izmir.  As the chief  occupier   of The Greek armies in Western  Anatolia,  bi r  many  villages,  towns  and  cities  settled,  seized  the rule of these places.  Greek  soldiers  began persecution of the indigenous  Turkish  people with the cooperation of   local  Greeks  and  Armenians, raped   women  and  girls,   tortures,  tattoos,    tresers  and  the killings   became  commonplace.

The people were exhausted  and  tired. After years    of wars  and  defeats,  he was hopeful,  tired  and  poor. Devlet  management had   become a problem to ensure public order,    where  it  collapsed. Gangs were   made in an  environment like this. Some  of them  were intended to fight  against  the occupying     forces, oppose the  occupation,  rebelled to the Istanbul  government  that approved  the  occupation. Some  of   the gangs were just   bandit  –   with raids in this  chaotic  environment  – aimed at stealing  and  enriching  what they could steal from locals   with threats – and to enrichthem. Another    group   was commissioned by the      Istanbul  government to   oppose  resistance  to the invading insurgents.  In the country, some    of the     sultan’s supporters  were divided into two, and some wanted the patronage  of  Britain, the most  powerful  state of the time  ,  some of which was the American mandate.   Mustafa   Kemal  and  his friends  were fighting  an  independent  Turkey  and China against them. 

The parliament  in Istanbul,  which lived for 50  days  after the Mondros agreement,  was dissolved by padishah on  December  21,  1918. In 1920,  after a  year’s break,  it was  revealed that Mustafa  Kemal  would convene  a  parliament  in Ankara and the Ottoman  Assembly    reopened   in January  1920.  The   parliament, which could live for  months,  was disbanded by British  occupying  forces on 16 March  1920 , where MPs  were arrested  and  deported  to the island of Malta.  Finally, on  April 23, 1920, the Turkish  Grand  National  Assembly was opened in the honor of Mustafa  Kemal.  The      land  government   had decided  that fighting the occupying  forces   could only  be successful with  the regular  army .

Susurluk, Mustafa Kemal  Pasha ,  Bandirma,   Manyas,  Balikesir  and  Bursa  regionagainstthe  occupying  forces, from the end of the  war  from 1918,    Kuvvay-ı  Milliye name under the name local   Circassian  Ethem  is of particular  importance   among the groups that make guerrilla movements.   

Circassian Ethem  was born in Bandirma in  1880.  The salum was the youngest of    Mr. Ali’s   son, from the shallow  Circassian  neck.     Two    b-and-a-half     brothers,  Reşit and Tevfik  Beyler,  graduated from Harbiye in 1901  ve  1902  and  joined the army of Osmanl. The other  two  brothers  Ilyas  and  Nuri  Gentlemen    died fighting  with  Greek  gangs.  Mr.    Ali did not want Ethem  to join the army.  However,  Ethem    came  to Istanbul from Bandirma  illegally and entered   suvari  little  Zabit  School in Bakirkoy ( Petty Officer  School).  The  Balkan  war also  collided in the Bulgarian  country  and  was awarded medals  for its usefulness . The    secret  organization of the Ottoman  Empire,  led by  Ashraf  Birdbasi in the First  World  War, is a guerrilla                in Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan under the command of The Organization – Isusa he  was involved in his wars and  wounded. That’s  why he had   returned to the country. 

15 M in     1920  after the Greek  army’s invasion of   Izmir,  Circassian  Ethem  in order to  protect  the homeland  kuvvay  –  i  Seyyariye  under the name of guerrillaa  platoon  and  i   Start the fight  against  the Greek  troops.  At the         time, Circassian  Ethem’s  platozeleri  stood  in  someplaces for the greek army to advance or  pass. So he  helped   win the  time needed  to  establish the national  army .

Co-operative Istanbul  government Prime Minister  Damat  Ferit  Pasha  , to prevent   the   National  Liberation  War,   armed  and  equipped  and  kuvva-  the head of the division  called    The Gods  The gendarmerie  major,  who was circassian,  brought Ahmet  Anzavur.  He started a  major  rebellion  against  the National  Liberation  forces in the Marmara region.    This riot movement called the”Anzavur  Rebellions”    soon    spread from Biga  to Balikesir.  He posed enough  threats to endanger   the National Liberation  Movement. 

The Ankara government  has mandated Circassian  Ethem  to  quell  this  insurgency.  Ethem,  who has    5,000  horse-drawn water   power,  has suppressed this  rebellion .      Gerede  and    Yozgat  riots,     which were the threat of the national  movement of the time,  also  suppressed the Incubators of Circassian  Ethem at the request of Mustafa   Kemal.  Circassian      Ethem,  meanwhile, caught and   punished greek  and pro-Istanbul eteas  and the bandits that robbed the people.  The person who   decided   to execute them  immediately  without  allowing the rebels to be tried – in a  sense,  a regular army                  necessary for an illegality and a confederate zionic war.    due to the establishment of themas,    ankara government    has been at odds.  He  refused  his offer to join thearmy.    He  defected  to greek incubators.  He  was sent to Izmir  and then  to Germany  for  treatment  by the Greekscoured . He was charged with treason  and  enteredthe 150s  list. Years    later, whenhe was   150,he didn’t  return the idea that he had not committed  a  crime with a crime. He leftthe   world in  1950,  alongside    a  relative in Jordan. 

Xx

      At the end of the First World  War, the Batin     Anatolia,  Kuvvay-I  Milliye – National  Forces- the region that entered  our  position when the movement  began  ,includingvillages    )  was as  follows ;

   Turkish Greek Armenian  Jewish

Bandirma 46119 11.703  4030  –

Erdek 11.143 20.815 186 252

Gönen 43. 472 1480  48  –

Edremit 39,906 – – 46

Bale 29. 043  1113 –  –

Burhaniye 23.100  215 –  –

Quince 3.215  18.052  – –

Balikesir 158.380 2.129  2.682 –

Izmir                            111.486            87.497            12.857     24.403

(Selek  1,  180  appendix  1)

This List Susurluk is not seen. Susurluk Çerkez Ethem ve Anzavur Force Between Tan MuhareIronChen Ethem’in Susurluk’ta Greek Occupied to the commander Delivered OlmaSi ve Anzavur’s Susurluk’a up Come ve Susurluk Sulta, SultanMeadow’in British Has Borasit Mine Reason With The Turn aroundemde Importance carries. Theirurluk’ta  Estimated Information Brat Türk people yanısıra, bir Quantity Rum, Borasit in the mine Running 60  Armenian Family – 200’e Close Armenian Population – ve Az Amount Of Jewish available idi. Greeks Butşatlığı – Cemetery – Is would be said.  Jewish is My father learned ( Tüccardan HScientific Efendi). Grandpa (Helvaci zade Mehmet EfEndi  Muteber bir  Job adamı idi.  Grandpa ve Drool tahın hEleven factory, Bread Furnace ve Wholesale ve parakende Groceries Containing bir Job Instead ve Sizeable bir Farm sahipTi. 1902 Born the Drool in his youth Susurluk’ta bir From the Jew French Lessons aldığın, Teacher işyerine gelip of this Gave he’d say.. Grandpa ve Drool Greek from the invasion of After their Starting Kuvvay-ı Milliye To the transaction Façade behind Kelly ve This troops yiywill ve For help they were found.. Greek Occupied Commander Family punish Internalin Droolı 18 Years old  While, Same Case the Other Several young AboutBut Prisoners Got, Ago In Bandirma bir Salt in the warehouse tutuklamış. Sonra Givesit Island Over Atina’already it’svkedilmişler ve AtinaOf Two Years Khumalo VI. Konstantinos Military  hastaneWithoutof maidship ve süpürgecilik they had it done.. Salvation  War After their Free bırakılmışlar ve Again Girit Over Türkiye’ye They’re here.. Dedemin Salvation War in the Façade Rest Services Reason With  Old  Türkçe Written Gazi Mustafa Kemal Signed Weightı the bir İstiklal Medal available.

Inthe  final  years of the First   World  Harbinin the vicinity, the Greek  and  Armenian  riot  movements  beganto sprout. For example, the Armenian church in the center  of the city in   Bandirma  pa-apazI  Avadis  church  sermonsthat the civilized  and  infortifiable  Armenian  nation  owns  this  land  –  now  that the time  of  this he    said he was coming, that God wantedit to be. Toros,  a teacher of the Armenian  primary school  in the Armenian  church,  described himself  as  a warfighter of independence.  Pharmacist  Istepan    expressed   his longing for the  national  flag.  In  addition  to provoking the    Armenian  people, they were abetting armenians      fleeing the Ottoman army  and  allowing them to join  the Armenian    gangs.  Organization-i  Mahsusa  (Turkish  Secret  Organization)  Bursa’s  Ibrahim Bey  entered  into the ranks  as an  agent .In August  1917  he caught the bflours,  with  documents   the crimes   were  substantiatedin court and they were executed.  

Upon  the Greek      army’s invasion of Izmir,the native  Greeksof Bandirma  built the Greek  flag  Zafer  Tak, thinking that Greek  forces would come to Bandirma  and  beganto wait for  them . Along with    many  places in the Marmara  divide, there were scout  arms  led by  “Mavri  Mira” for  Bandirma  Rum  schools. Until he was 20,    Greek  youth  were joining them.  Pictures of Yunan  prime minister     andnizelosin the city and  Greek  flags were the original. Ottoman  hücluster  remedywasnot. In Bandirma,  theaskeri  and  the property  management  were incapable  of  greek  aggression. 

Kara Hasanfor 200  people in the area to disrupt  security in  Biga,   Edincik  and  circassian  bandit  Deli Şükrü,  Karacabey  Çambaz    Hakki,  Anzavur,  Biga’da  Çerkez Sefer Bey,  In Balikesir,  the bandit’s  troops attached to The Drama’s  Riza  Bey  were causing  their movements .  Bandirma,  Gönen,  Susurluk  Bdetained,  edremit  and  ayvalik  was made possible  to make the journey as soonas there was no  robbery.   Therewas always  a  French  warship    in B andanma.    The  French-run  B-m-Izmirsaw this  as a fact for the protection   of the railway.  

In addition to the  Circassian  and  Turkish  bandit    gangs,  the Greek  thug  was oneof the  reasons for  the deteriorationof security .   Local  Greek     gangswere   mostly    active  around  Erdek,  Bandirma  and  Marmara Island, where they   persecuted the local  Muslim  people.   These  gangs were joinedbyYunanpeople   from   the island of  Sisam,  who wore   native  Greek  dresses .

With         the coordination   of opposing  movements  and the  purpose   of implementing  a  general  policy,  the inter-congressional  conventions were to be convened . Sivas  Congress on July  23,  1919,  First  Balikesir  Congress on July    26,    Erzurum  Congress closed on August 7 th n azilli,  August 16    Alaşehir  and  18  days  Then the Sivas  Congress  convened. These  congresses        were the basis   of mustafa kemal    pa’n’n’n’nnational state  establishmenttargets. 

  After the occupation of Izmir, Circassian  Ethem  Gönen,  Manyas,Balikesir  and   Bandirma n,  probably the villages of Çerkez  in Susurluk  Sultanmeadow,  Aziziye  and  Demirkapi villages    and      Borasit   madeni’s work by summoning the Circassians  he knew,  formed a  unity of 2,000  people.  Later,  this  union    reached 5,000  people.  They  set up a  defensive  line   in  Salihli,where the first Birdçubaşı  Ashref  Bey’s  farm is located.  The Farm  Organization  –    was the center of The Mahsusa.   They  then  provided important  services in suppressing    internal  disturbances  and  riots,  initially    in the Marmara  region.  But  these  Circassian  Ethem  forces  were commanded on their own, in a  sense  the disdemeanor      procession.  They’re also involved in thefat ma and  persecution    movements. Kisishand  and  social  relations  were processed according to the tribal  rules of the Circassians.  Duzce,   Konya,and  Yozgat  rebels  played a role in the raid. It is also   known that when they enter a house      under the pretext of looking for  weapons,  women go hand-to-hand  to crates  and  jewelry – and they’re not goingto be able to get into the house.  Since there was no  military    force in Ankara,  they     were cherished.

 One of  themoments of pre-em  events in the region is the cherkez  Ethem  ,  Anzavur  Ahmet  çhorse. Anzavur  ahmet was  one of the branchesof the Circassians  who settled  in Biga in Marmara Bolgesi, he was in service  as a gendarmerie  man in  his youth, followed   by eşkiya.  He  participatedin the follow-up of Cakircalı,  who was derived  between Aydin and Ödemiş  and    eliminatedin the early  years  of legitimacy.  So he went up to  the gendarmerieand went up to the regimental  captaincy.  Some  corruption was  referredto the nedenide  dispenser .  Anzavur  Milli  Mücadele’s  most  buddhist  days  becamea source of unrest  and crow’s wand  . He was ignorant  and  conservative.  He was  a  tally, a gang maker with    no  laws and  no order.  He    completedhis gang with the  release   of the prison-bound  inmate- the first time he’s been convicted of murder.  With the support of the British  and  the palace, it has sparked  riots  and  posed serious  dangers  where the occupying  authorities  wanted it. At one  point,  izmit  mutasarrafghina,    an  office between the governor’s  office and the prefecture,   was appointed.

Anzavur’s matings beganon September  21,  1919.  He showed up   after the Sivas  Congress.    Greek  troops  coming from Izmir had not yet  reachedthe rebel  zone.  I. On November  2, 1919, susuren enteredthe Susuriaand Gönen on November 12,  1919,  in what is   called the Anzavur  rebellion.  Girı  Susurluk,  Manyas,  Ulu abat,  Kirmastı  ( Mustafa  Kemeal  Pasha),  Gönen  sides  allaa.     In the   villages  and  towns  he occupied,  hegatheredpeople in mosques-  the squares, the military service  ,the soldiers  should return to their hometowns –    or  join him, Kuvvay-  he   declared  that I Milliye  had “Alliance  and  Terakki”   bandits, that  they would be erased, that there was no  sultan’s  consent to stand up to the Greeks. 

    Kazim Özalp’s   61st division  in Balikesir and The 56th Division of Bursa’s  Bekir Sami  Bey with horsemen  and  pedestrian  soldiers  and  threethousand national   forcerle on November  15,  anzavur’u  susurluk around thevicinity. He pulled from the field  with 30  dead.  He was forced  to clash November 16/17 . It’s afairymoment.  1.Anzavur    resultedin his  defeat in everye-kmeat.  2.The      so-called Anzavur movement  began on February  16,  1920. This  movement,  which began in Biga,  spread rapidly to  Gforeen,  Susurluk,  Kirmasti  and  Bandirma. Gönenliler  200-strong    Governor  Rahmi  Bey joined forces  and  made a defense.  Rahmi  bey,   Mufti,   Mayor and  many    people from the people  were killed.  Bandirma  commander,   who is circassian,  Yusuf  Izzet  Pasha  was withdrawnto   Bursa.  Anzavur  completely  dominated   the area where he was found.  He entered Bandirma  easily   because of his native businessmen.   Anzavur  is  everywhere,  “The  Koranin my chest,  faith  in my heart, horse  in thestadium,i have dedicatedmy commitment to working for religion.  O  people,    comebehind my back.  Caliph  army,  Kuvvay-I will ruinthe Milliye  bandit.  Kuvvay-I  will establish Muhammadiye ,  Mustafa  Kemal is a  traitor”   he was walking aroundtherek.  He had his back on the sultan  and the Greek  forces. 

On  April 15, 192,the National  forces –  Circassian  Ethem  forces-  defeated                              the anzavur and Gavur Imam forces, who are alleged to have been for 5,000 people, in the Tashbridge area between Susurluk Kirmasti . The  forces weretight-knit.       The rebels  took refugeon British  ships  in  Bandirma  and  Karabiga.  They  foughtthe National  forces around  Adapazari for a while.  Circassian  Ethem  clearedthe area from the rebels . He processed coffee tables in Bandirma.  Circassian  Ethem  and his older brother  Tevfik Bey set up the gallows  in towns    and   subordinated many    rebel  men.     A  week  later, on April  23rd,   the Turkish  Grand  National  Assembly was openedin  Ankara.    This   success of Circassian Ethe   m  made him a very  important  person, respected    , in the absence of the milli  army . Circassian  Ethem’s defeat of the Anzavur  and  Gavur  Imam  forces is an  important  pointof Kurtuluş  Savaşı.  If  otherwise  it was  Padisah  and  the Occupy  forces gained   great morale, the establishment  of a regular army would have been too   late. 

Since thebandirma  was   on the coast of  marmara, the   Straits  were considered to be the statusquo and  hhad not been underthe full  dominance of  an internal  power.  It  was more  of a  town where the National  Forces  mentioned   it. Sometimes  Anzav   wasthe  scene   of    the  attackby British  soldiers  going to the port  after the abduction of the Akbas  ammunition. The Greek  birlikleri, who entered  Balıkesir  with the “Zafer  March”    campaign launched on June 22,  1920, added a bfor a  while  to  recover.  The Greek  Commander,  who is  confident that Turkish  troops  were disbanded,  went to  help  theb-altitudes  in Balikesir.     Thessaloniki,  Dedeağ     hungry, and the soldiers  they brought  from Iskeçe, on July    2,  1920  at 5:00  a.m. by taking ships to the ports of Bandirma  and  Erdek,   isgal these places   he did. They didn’t meet enme   in Bandirma.  He   has developed operationsin the direction of Karacabey and  Susurluk . Greek  Commander-in-Chief  Paraskevopulos arrived in Nanisma on July  5th,  three  days  after  the invasion,  while   Greek  Kyreg  tantdha konstantin  arrivedin B on July 6th.   (Aybek,  173-174)

When Circassian   Ethem  came to Ankara  after the   appointment to bathe the Yozgat  rebellion, he was  greeted  and  compensated    by  Mustafa Kemal  Pasha, after the  Yozgat  rebellion wasstirn.   When he returned to    Ankara with his forces, Circassian  Ethem  bey  and   his       brothers,  ” with theg-showsmade  to them in Ankara,  even in the capital   of  Anatolia, Honor   and the men  who have  power are knitted…   Ethem  and  his brothers  were right to   consider  themselves masters of national revolution..  According to the thoughts, the  whole  national  Anatolian  presence was livingwith the force of their  rifles of parliament  and the Government ”  (Sener,53)

The conflict    with the  Ankara  government has grown after  proposals   to  join thenational military  and  rejected  proposals for arabulupeople. On  December 27,  1920,Mustafa Kemal   telegraphedto Colonel  Ismet  Beye,  commander of the BatFront,    and  Refet Bey, commander of the Southern  Front, who said: “I don’t know what you’re doinghere. ”     (Balikesir  mebusu  Vehbi,  Saruhan  mebusu  CelalBayar,  Ethem’s abeyi  Saruhan  Mebusu  Reşit   Bey,  Formershir mebusu  Eyup  Sabri,        Antep  mebusu Kılıç Ali ( the advice  board covering theanswer)-  The Kuuvvayi-ı  Seyyare  work  can no longer  be solved through  peace  and  politics the   work    and  the problem has   been resolvedby  force  less. There is  noneed to inform Parliament   of the final phase of this- and that’s not the first timewe’ve been able to do so.     If we succeed, there   isno doubtthat the Assembly  will approve of what we do.  We have    enough  documents  and  evidence  to  prove that we are entitledto”. (Sener, 106)

Mustafa Kemal Describes the situation    in the 543-547.ci  of Nutuk;  “The         masters,  Kutahya,   the decision of the delegation  to the deputy and the need for the prey  of  the delegation to communicate the needfor  the front line  commanders against the rebel Etem and his brothers to act on the operation against the rebel  Etem  and  his  brothers I ordered it.

 The masters- the military of the           operation, the capulsion   and the state  of the state,    the unjust  children of this to beg the ransom to the  mountains, who think it is a  thuggery.             Trace the whole  Turkish  homeland with their charlatans,  clamors,  and  the Turkish nation’s  Grand  National  Assembly with them, the inadequacy,  the  unjust  and any enemy  These             brothers,  who  have enough  pests  and private medicine storing their stobs, have the utmost  strength  and  istin their  hands,   including    the enemies they have.              in our historyof inkilap,  recording  as   an  exemplary  muessire, was  seen as essential  “…  

When the board was a guest of Kütahya’da  Circassian  Ethem,  on December  29,  1920,   Ethem was drawn  to hisroom, and when the nervouserwas  too  corrupt, he told parliament  that he was full of  heavy  accusations.     sent; “Thereis no way to  continue  fighting  in these  wastes .  Even though    you’ve been in constant  meetings  for a year  –  the  biggest    job you’ve done  in the time –  it’s been to increase your own  foodto 300-400  liras . I think    you’ve been  informed of the sedition  that’s been in the army for months ,  butwith a  secret  session,   you’ve had the courageto resolve  and  prevent  them … Hü k ümet  members are a member of each of them who have sacrificed   your    holy  grev to your  personal interests by being sycophantsto each of them.. ”  (Ethem, 176)  wrote. Circassian  Ethem  later stated    in his memoir that he regretted    sending  this  telegram. 

Mustafa Kemal   continues   in Nutku  (Speech, 545);

”  Masters,  in this  telgramnesty,  a  delusion called the protest name,  was indeed  drawn to the parliament  rial  and  readto parliament in a     trial. The  elfaz       and  phrase used in this –    so  galiz  and  so    biedeba – once it was read    ,  could not tolerate reading and  using it   again.  I don’t see such  a  despicable       delusion, and i don’t seeit as a must-have in your presence.  With this  delusion,    insulting  the individuals of the mebus, the legitimacy of the  Assembly of the National was violated,    and izzet Pasha delegation was demandingthe release    of the movement  to Istanbul.” 

Circassian Ethem  forces  2326  militias  – 200  of them infantry-  159. The  exact  presence of the regiment was 4650  people,  6  machine  guns,  4 guns.  There  have been clashes with Western Front  Commander  Ismet  and The Southern  Front  commander,  Refet  Be.       The    national   army,  meanwhile,  wonthe Victoryof I.     On January 11,  1921,  the Greek  army was finally  withdrawn    from the defeat. 

There were three  options  for Circassian Ethem ; To  surrender  to the  army, to choose freedom  by  climbing the  mountain and to fight, to seek refuge  in the Greeks.  Mr. Ethem  sends his brothers  and his  aide,  Mr. Sami,   to meet with the Greeks.  Cut the fire  is signed. He seeks   asylum for the Greeks.  The Yunans  accept    his  terms  . First,  his brothers  Reşit  and  Tevfik  Gentlemen take refuge.   As for   their  health,   he    decides to take refuge.  25  officers  and  700  troops    moveto the Greek  side.  Others  are released. 

 Mr. Ethem cannot carry out any kind   of  asylum.   He is drawnto the mountain  with his  elite  50-strong contingent.     Manyas     ,  Stirdirgı-  Susurluk  mountain  villages  stay for  a  while  and  friendsand friends are forced to stay in the Greek  kuvetts  due to the   forced conditionsof housing is found. They deal with Alexander, the Greek  Governor  from Susurluk, through  an  Armenian  interpreter  in the village of  Bir  Yoruk . They  cometogether to  Susurlu. In the   government mansion of Susurluk –  now the site of the statue of Ataturk, the  flag  pole  and the c.E.moon  garden – Circassian  Ethem  surrenders  to the Greek  commander.  His friends  are leftin their village with their guns.  His   brother  Tevfik  Bey,   who came to the susur,  governor Alexander, Tevfik  Bey’s  escort  officer  Yorgiyadis,   Şevket  Bey  and a few  friends  together  with  Circassian  Ethem  Susurluk  At the station    (opening   December  16, 1912) theysayto move  to Izmir by taking the train on a  day in late  February  1920. 

The   Borasit     mine                                  in Susurluk, which has a very important place in Turkish Economic History until the First World War and beyond, was established on October 29, 1923, in The Republic of Turkey. faced many    difficult  problems in terms of production,  transportation,  and  management.   He changed hands  a couple of  times.  But  despite  all  the problems,  he continued to exist.  He  then made new  agreements  with  the Republican  government.  Borax,  which was placed in buckets  with the air  lineof the Borasit  Mine, was on its way to Omerköy  station.  The thick steel  rope,  which provides this air  line  4.5 km  long,    was usedto close  the  Dardanelles  during the First  Düya  war. 

Resources;

Kemal Ataturk; Lecture  I,II, Turkish Revolutionary History  Institute,Istanbul, 1960

Selcuk Aybey; Salvation at the End of the  Barrel,Istanbul, 2006

Circassian Ethem; My memories,    the prepared; Nermin  Taylan; Our  Books,Istanbul, 2014

Sabahattin Selek; National  Struggle  I,II,Formal  Publications,1982

Cemal Şener; Circassian  Ethem  Event,Any  Publications,Istanbul,1986

Nurer Ugurlu; Kuvayi  Seyyariye,Formal  Publishing House,Istanbul,2007

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