100 YEARS AGO – April 23, 1920
At the end of the First World War in 1918, the Ottoman Empire was defeated with Germany, the victorious states, England, France and Italy, greece and various regions of Turkey Had occupied, including Istanbul and Izmir. As the chief occupier of The Greek armies in Western Anatolia, bi r many villages, towns and cities settled, seized the rule of these places. Greek soldiers began persecution of the indigenous Turkish people with the cooperation of local Greeks and Armenians, raped women and girls, tortures, tattoos, tresers and the killings became commonplace.
The people were exhausted and tired. After years of wars and defeats, he was hopeful, tired and poor. Devlet management had become a problem to ensure public order, where it collapsed. Gangs were made in an environment like this. Some of them were intended to fight against the occupying forces, oppose the occupation, rebelled to the Istanbul government that approved the occupation. Some of the gangs were just bandit – with raids in this chaotic environment – aimed at stealing and enriching what they could steal from locals with threats – and to enrichthem. Another group was commissioned by the Istanbul government to oppose resistance to the invading insurgents. In the country, some of the sultan’s supporters were divided into two, and some wanted the patronage of Britain, the most powerful state of the time , some of which was the American mandate. Mustafa Kemal and his friends were fighting an independent Turkey and China against them.
The parliament in Istanbul, which lived for 50 days after the Mondros agreement, was dissolved by padishah on December 21, 1918. In 1920, after a year’s break, it was revealed that Mustafa Kemal would convene a parliament in Ankara and the Ottoman Assembly reopened in January 1920. The parliament, which could live for months, was disbanded by British occupying forces on 16 March 1920 , where MPs were arrested and deported to the island of Malta. Finally, on April 23, 1920, the Turkish Grand National Assembly was opened in the honor of Mustafa Kemal. The land government had decided that fighting the occupying forces could only be successful with the regular army .
Susurluk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha , Bandirma, Manyas, Balikesir and Bursa regionagainstthe occupying forces, from the end of the war from 1918, Kuvvay-ı Milliye name under the name local Circassian Ethem is of particular importance among the groups that make guerrilla movements.
Circassian Ethem was born in Bandirma in 1880. The salum was the youngest of Mr. Ali’s son, from the shallow Circassian neck. Two b-and-a-half brothers, Reşit and Tevfik Beyler, graduated from Harbiye in 1901 ve 1902 and joined the army of Osmanl. The other two brothers Ilyas and Nuri Gentlemen died fighting with Greek gangs. Mr. Ali did not want Ethem to join the army. However, Ethem came to Istanbul from Bandirma illegally and entered suvari little Zabit School in Bakirkoy ( Petty Officer School). The Balkan war also collided in the Bulgarian country and was awarded medals for its usefulness . The secret organization of the Ottoman Empire, led by Ashraf Birdbasi in the First World War, is a guerrilla in Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan under the command of The Organization – Isusa he was involved in his wars and wounded. That’s why he had returned to the country.
15 M in 1920 after the Greek army’s invasion of Izmir, Circassian Ethem in order to protect the homeland kuvvay – i Seyyariye under the name of guerrillaa platoon and i Start the fight against the Greek troops. At the time, Circassian Ethem’s platozeleri stood in someplaces for the greek army to advance or pass. So he helped win the time needed to establish the national army .
Co-operative Istanbul government Prime Minister Damat Ferit Pasha , to prevent the National Liberation War, armed and equipped and kuvva- the head of the division called The Gods The gendarmerie major, who was circassian, brought Ahmet Anzavur. He started a major rebellion against the National Liberation forces in the Marmara region. This riot movement called the”Anzavur Rebellions” soon spread from Biga to Balikesir. He posed enough threats to endanger the National Liberation Movement.
The Ankara government has mandated Circassian Ethem to quell this insurgency. Ethem, who has 5,000 horse-drawn water power, has suppressed this rebellion . Gerede and Yozgat riots, which were the threat of the national movement of the time, also suppressed the Incubators of Circassian Ethem at the request of Mustafa Kemal. Circassian Ethem, meanwhile, caught and punished greek and pro-Istanbul eteas and the bandits that robbed the people. The person who decided to execute them immediately without allowing the rebels to be tried – in a sense, a regular army necessary for an illegality and a confederate zionic war. due to the establishment of themas, ankara government has been at odds. He refused his offer to join thearmy. He defected to greek incubators. He was sent to Izmir and then to Germany for treatment by the Greekscoured . He was charged with treason and enteredthe 150s list. Years later, whenhe was 150,he didn’t return the idea that he had not committed a crime with a crime. He leftthe world in 1950, alongside a relative in Jordan.
At the end of the First World War, the Batin Anatolia, Kuvvay-I Milliye – National Forces- the region that entered our position when the movement began ,includingvillages ) was as follows ;
Turkish Greek Armenian Jewish
Bandirma 46119 11.703 4030 –
Erdek 11.143 20.815 186 252
Gönen 43. 472 1480 48 –
Edremit 39,906 – – 46
Bale 29. 043 1113 – –
Burhaniye 23.100 215 – –
Quince 3.215 18.052 – –
Balikesir 158.380 2.129 2.682 –
Izmir 111.486 87.497 12.857 24.403
(Selek 1, 180 appendix 1)
This List Susurluk is not seen. Susurluk Çerkez Ethem ve Anzavur Force Between Tan MuhareIronChen Ethem’in Susurluk’ta Greek Occupied to the commander Delivered OlmaSi ve Anzavur’s Susurluk’a up Come ve Susurluk Sulta, SultanMeadow’in British Has Borasit Mine Reason With The Turn aroundemde Importance carries. Theirurluk’ta Estimated Information Brat Türk people yanısıra, bir Quantity Rum, Borasit in the mine Running 60 Armenian Family – 200’e Close Armenian Population – ve Az Amount Of Jewish available idi. Greeks Butşatlığı – Cemetery – Is would be said. Jewish is My father learned ( Tüccardan HScientific Efendi). Grandpa (Helvaci zade Mehmet EfEndi Muteber bir Job adamı idi. Grandpa ve Drool tahın hEleven factory, Bread Furnace ve Wholesale ve parakende Groceries Containing bir Job Instead ve Sizeable bir Farm sahipTi. 1902 Born the Drool in his youth Susurluk’ta bir From the Jew French Lessons aldığın, Teacher işyerine gelip of this Gave he’d say.. Grandpa ve Drool Greek from the invasion of After their Starting Kuvvay-ı Milliye To the transaction Façade behind Kelly ve This troops yiywill ve For help they were found.. Greek Occupied Commander Family punish Internalin Droolı 18 Years old While, Same Case the Other Several young AboutBut Prisoners Got, Ago In Bandirma bir Salt in the warehouse tutuklamış. Sonra Givesit Island Over Atina’already it’svkedilmişler ve AtinaOf Two Years Khumalo VI. Konstantinos Military hastaneWithoutof maidship ve süpürgecilik they had it done.. Salvation War After their Free bırakılmışlar ve Again Girit Over Türkiye’ye They’re here.. Dedemin Salvation War in the Façade Rest Services Reason With Old Türkçe Written Gazi Mustafa Kemal Signed Weightı the bir İstiklal Medal available.
Inthe final years of the First World Harbinin the vicinity, the Greek and Armenian riot movements beganto sprout. For example, the Armenian church in the center of the city in Bandirma pa-apazI Avadis church sermonsthat the civilized and infortifiable Armenian nation owns this land – now that the time of this he said he was coming, that God wantedit to be. Toros, a teacher of the Armenian primary school in the Armenian church, described himself as a warfighter of independence. Pharmacist Istepan expressed his longing for the national flag. In addition to provoking the Armenian people, they were abetting armenians fleeing the Ottoman army and allowing them to join the Armenian gangs. Organization-i Mahsusa (Turkish Secret Organization) Bursa’s Ibrahim Bey entered into the ranks as an agent .In August 1917 he caught the bflours, with documents the crimes were substantiatedin court and they were executed.
Upon the Greek army’s invasion of Izmir,the native Greeksof Bandirma built the Greek flag Zafer Tak, thinking that Greek forces would come to Bandirma and beganto wait for them . Along with many places in the Marmara divide, there were scout arms led by “Mavri Mira” for Bandirma Rum schools. Until he was 20, Greek youth were joining them. Pictures of Yunan prime minister andnizelosin the city and Greek flags were the original. Ottoman hücluster remedywasnot. In Bandirma, theaskeri and the property management were incapable of greek aggression.
Kara Hasanfor 200 people in the area to disrupt security in Biga, Edincik and circassian bandit Deli Şükrü, Karacabey Çambaz Hakki, Anzavur, Biga’da Çerkez Sefer Bey, In Balikesir, the bandit’s troops attached to The Drama’s Riza Bey were causing their movements . Bandirma, Gönen, Susurluk Bdetained, edremit and ayvalik was made possible to make the journey as soonas there was no robbery. Therewas always a French warship in B andanma. The French-run B-m-Izmirsaw this as a fact for the protection of the railway.
In addition to the Circassian and Turkish bandit gangs, the Greek thug was oneof the reasons for the deteriorationof security . Local Greek gangswere mostly active around Erdek, Bandirma and Marmara Island, where they persecuted the local Muslim people. These gangs were joinedbyYunanpeople from the island of Sisam, who wore native Greek dresses .
With the coordination of opposing movements and the purpose of implementing a general policy, the inter-congressional conventions were to be convened . Sivas Congress on July 23, 1919, First Balikesir Congress on July 26, Erzurum Congress closed on August 7 th n azilli, August 16 Alaşehir and 18 days Then the Sivas Congress convened. These congresses were the basis of mustafa kemal pa’n’n’n’nnational state establishmenttargets.
After the occupation of Izmir, Circassian Ethem Gönen, Manyas,Balikesir and Bandirma n, probably the villages of Çerkez in Susurluk Sultanmeadow, Aziziye and Demirkapi villages and Borasit madeni’s work by summoning the Circassians he knew, formed a unity of 2,000 people. Later, this union reached 5,000 people. They set up a defensive line in Salihli,where the first Birdçubaşı Ashref Bey’s farm is located. The Farm Organization – was the center of The Mahsusa. They then provided important services in suppressing internal disturbances and riots, initially in the Marmara region. But these Circassian Ethem forces were commanded on their own, in a sense the disdemeanor procession. They’re also involved in thefat ma and persecution movements. Kisishand and social relations were processed according to the tribal rules of the Circassians. Duzce, Konya,and Yozgat rebels played a role in the raid. It is also known that when they enter a house under the pretext of looking for weapons, women go hand-to-hand to crates and jewelry – and they’re not goingto be able to get into the house. Since there was no military force in Ankara, they were cherished.
One of themoments of pre-em events in the region is the cherkez Ethem , Anzavur Ahmet çhorse. Anzavur ahmet was one of the branchesof the Circassians who settled in Biga in Marmara Bolgesi, he was in service as a gendarmerie man in his youth, followed by eşkiya. He participatedin the follow-up of Cakircalı, who was derived between Aydin and Ödemiş and eliminatedin the early years of legitimacy. So he went up to the gendarmerieand went up to the regimental captaincy. Some corruption was referredto the nedenide dispenser . Anzavur Milli Mücadele’s most buddhist days becamea source of unrest and crow’s wand . He was ignorant and conservative. He was a tally, a gang maker with no laws and no order. He completedhis gang with the release of the prison-bound inmate- the first time he’s been convicted of murder. With the support of the British and the palace, it has sparked riots and posed serious dangers where the occupying authorities wanted it. At one point, izmit mutasarrafghina, an office between the governor’s office and the prefecture, was appointed.
Anzavur’s matings beganon September 21, 1919. He showed up after the Sivas Congress. Greek troops coming from Izmir had not yet reachedthe rebel zone. I. On November 2, 1919, susuren enteredthe Susuriaand Gönen on November 12, 1919, in what is called the Anzavur rebellion. Girı Susurluk, Manyas, Ulu abat, Kirmastı ( Mustafa Kemeal Pasha), Gönen sides allaa. In the villages and towns he occupied, hegatheredpeople in mosques- the squares, the military service ,the soldiers should return to their hometowns – or join him, Kuvvay- he declared that I Milliye had “Alliance and Terakki” bandits, that they would be erased, that there was no sultan’s consent to stand up to the Greeks.
Kazim Özalp’s 61st division in Balikesir and The 56th Division of Bursa’s Bekir Sami Bey with horsemen and pedestrian soldiers and threethousand national forcerle on November 15, anzavur’u susurluk around thevicinity. He pulled from the field with 30 dead. He was forced to clash November 16/17 . It’s afairymoment. 1.Anzavur resultedin his defeat in everye-kmeat. 2.The so-called Anzavur movement began on February 16, 1920. This movement, which began in Biga, spread rapidly to Gforeen, Susurluk, Kirmasti and Bandirma. Gönenliler 200-strong Governor Rahmi Bey joined forces and made a defense. Rahmi bey, Mufti, Mayor and many people from the people were killed. Bandirma commander, who is circassian, Yusuf Izzet Pasha was withdrawnto Bursa. Anzavur completely dominated the area where he was found. He entered Bandirma easily because of his native businessmen. Anzavur is everywhere, “The Koranin my chest, faith in my heart, horse in thestadium,i have dedicatedmy commitment to working for religion. O people, comebehind my back. Caliph army, Kuvvay-I will ruinthe Milliye bandit. Kuvvay-I will establish Muhammadiye , Mustafa Kemal is a traitor” he was walking aroundtherek. He had his back on the sultan and the Greek forces.
On April 15, 192,the National forces – Circassian Ethem forces- defeated the anzavur and Gavur Imam forces, who are alleged to have been for 5,000 people, in the Tashbridge area between Susurluk Kirmasti . The forces weretight-knit. The rebels took refugeon British ships in Bandirma and Karabiga. They foughtthe National forces around Adapazari for a while. Circassian Ethem clearedthe area from the rebels . He processed coffee tables in Bandirma. Circassian Ethem and his older brother Tevfik Bey set up the gallows in towns and subordinated many rebel men. A week later, on April 23rd, the Turkish Grand National Assembly was openedin Ankara. This success of Circassian Ethe m made him a very important person, respected , in the absence of the milli army . Circassian Ethem’s defeat of the Anzavur and Gavur Imam forces is an important pointof Kurtuluş Savaşı. If otherwise it was Padisah and the Occupy forces gained great morale, the establishment of a regular army would have been too late.
Since thebandirma was on the coast of marmara, the Straits were considered to be the statusquo and hhad not been underthe full dominance of an internal power. It was more of a town where the National Forces mentioned it. Sometimes Anzav wasthe scene of the attackby British soldiers going to the port after the abduction of the Akbas ammunition. The Greek birlikleri, who entered Balıkesir with the “Zafer March” campaign launched on June 22, 1920, added a bfor a while to recover. The Greek Commander, who is confident that Turkish troops were disbanded, went to help theb-altitudes in Balikesir. Thessaloniki, Dedeağ hungry, and the soldiers they brought from Iskeçe, on July 2, 1920 at 5:00 a.m. by taking ships to the ports of Bandirma and Erdek, isgal these places he did. They didn’t meet enme in Bandirma. He has developed operationsin the direction of Karacabey and Susurluk . Greek Commander-in-Chief Paraskevopulos arrived in Nanisma on July 5th, three days after the invasion, while Greek Kyreg tantdha konstantin arrivedin B on July 6th. (Aybek, 173-174)
When Circassian Ethem came to Ankara after the appointment to bathe the Yozgat rebellion, he was greeted and compensated by Mustafa Kemal Pasha, after the Yozgat rebellion wasstirn. When he returned to Ankara with his forces, Circassian Ethem bey and his brothers, ” with theg-showsmade to them in Ankara, even in the capital of Anatolia, Honor and the men who have power are knitted… Ethem and his brothers were right to consider themselves masters of national revolution.. According to the thoughts, the whole national Anatolian presence was livingwith the force of their rifles of parliament and the Government ” (Sener,53)
The conflict with the Ankara government has grown after proposals to join thenational military and rejected proposals for arabulupeople. On December 27, 1920,Mustafa Kemal telegraphedto Colonel Ismet Beye, commander of the BatFront, and Refet Bey, commander of the Southern Front, who said: “I don’t know what you’re doinghere. ” (Balikesir mebusu Vehbi, Saruhan mebusu CelalBayar, Ethem’s abeyi Saruhan Mebusu Reşit Bey, Formershir mebusu Eyup Sabri, Antep mebusu Kılıç Ali ( the advice board covering theanswer)- The Kuuvvayi-ı Seyyare work can no longer be solved through peace and politics the work and the problem has been resolvedby force less. There is noneed to inform Parliament of the final phase of this- and that’s not the first timewe’ve been able to do so. If we succeed, there isno doubtthat the Assembly will approve of what we do. We have enough documents and evidence to prove that we are entitledto”. (Sener, 106)
Mustafa Kemal Describes the situation in the 543-547.ci of Nutuk; “The masters, Kutahya, the decision of the delegation to the deputy and the need for the prey of the delegation to communicate the needfor the front line commanders against the rebel Etem and his brothers to act on the operation against the rebel Etem and his brothers I ordered it.
The masters- the military of the operation, the capulsion and the state of the state, the unjust children of this to beg the ransom to the mountains, who think it is a thuggery. Trace the whole Turkish homeland with their charlatans, clamors, and the Turkish nation’s Grand National Assembly with them, the inadequacy, the unjust and any enemy These brothers, who have enough pests and private medicine storing their stobs, have the utmost strength and istin their hands, including the enemies they have. in our historyof inkilap, recording as an exemplary muessire, was seen as essential “…
When the board was a guest of Kütahya’da Circassian Ethem, on December 29, 1920, Ethem was drawn to hisroom, and when the nervouserwas too corrupt, he told parliament that he was full of heavy accusations. sent; “Thereis no way to continue fighting in these wastes . Even though you’ve been in constant meetings for a year – the biggest job you’ve done in the time – it’s been to increase your own foodto 300-400 liras . I think you’ve been informed of the sedition that’s been in the army for months , butwith a secret session, you’ve had the courageto resolve and prevent them … Hü k ümet members are a member of each of them who have sacrificed your holy grev to your personal interests by being sycophantsto each of them.. ” (Ethem, 176) wrote. Circassian Ethem later stated in his memoir that he regretted sending this telegram.
Mustafa Kemal continues in Nutku (Speech, 545);
” Masters, in this telgramnesty, a delusion called the protest name, was indeed drawn to the parliament rial and readto parliament in a trial. The elfaz and phrase used in this – so galiz and so biedeba – once it was read , could not tolerate reading and using it again. I don’t see such a despicable delusion, and i don’t seeit as a must-have in your presence. With this delusion, insulting the individuals of the mebus, the legitimacy of the Assembly of the National was violated, and izzet Pasha delegation was demandingthe release of the movement to Istanbul.”
Circassian Ethem forces 2326 militias – 200 of them infantry- 159. The exact presence of the regiment was 4650 people, 6 machine guns, 4 guns. There have been clashes with Western Front Commander Ismet and The Southern Front commander, Refet Be. The national army, meanwhile, wonthe Victoryof I. On January 11, 1921, the Greek army was finally withdrawn from the defeat.
There were three options for Circassian Ethem ; To surrender to the army, to choose freedom by climbing the mountain and to fight, to seek refuge in the Greeks. Mr. Ethem sends his brothers and his aide, Mr. Sami, to meet with the Greeks. Cut the fire is signed. He seeks asylum for the Greeks. The Yunans accept his terms . First, his brothers Reşit and Tevfik Gentlemen take refuge. As for their health, he decides to take refuge. 25 officers and 700 troops moveto the Greek side. Others are released.
Mr. Ethem cannot carry out any kind of asylum. He is drawnto the mountain with his elite 50-strong contingent. Manyas , Stirdirgı- Susurluk mountain villages stay for a while and friendsand friends are forced to stay in the Greek kuvetts due to the forced conditionsof housing is found. They deal with Alexander, the Greek Governor from Susurluk, through an Armenian interpreter in the village of Bir Yoruk . They cometogether to Susurlu. In the government mansion of Susurluk – now the site of the statue of Ataturk, the flag pole and the c.E.moon garden – Circassian Ethem surrenders to the Greek commander. His friends are leftin their village with their guns. His brother Tevfik Bey, who came to the susur, governor Alexander, Tevfik Bey’s escort officer Yorgiyadis, Şevket Bey and a few friends together with Circassian Ethem Susurluk At the station (opening December 16, 1912) theysayto move to Izmir by taking the train on a day in late February 1920.
The Borasit mine in Susurluk, which has a very important place in Turkish Economic History until the First World War and beyond, was established on October 29, 1923, in The Republic of Turkey. faced many difficult problems in terms of production, transportation, and management. He changed hands a couple of times. But despite all the problems, he continued to exist. He then made new agreements with the Republican government. Borax, which was placed in buckets with the air lineof the Borasit Mine, was on its way to Omerköy station. The thick steel rope, which provides this air line 4.5 km long, was usedto close the Dardanelles during the First Düya war.
Kemal Ataturk; Lecture I,II, Turkish Revolutionary History Institute,Istanbul, 1960
Selcuk Aybey; Salvation at the End of the Barrel,Istanbul, 2006
Circassian Ethem; My memories, the prepared; Nermin Taylan; Our Books,Istanbul, 2014
Sabahattin Selek; National Struggle I,II,Formal Publications,1982
Cemal Şener; Circassian Ethem Event,Any Publications,Istanbul,1986
Nurer Ugurlu; Kuvayi Seyyariye,Formal Publishing House,Istanbul,2007