Man developed into Homo sapiens developed after a long period of gradual evolution, when he came to dominate the world with his superior intelligence.
He first struggled against nature, and then against the savage beasts in his environment. He learnt to make flint blades from polished stones, and to turn them into weapons.
Anatolia has been host to a variety of cultures throught pre-history, and ancient times. The Paleolothic or Early Stone Age was the first age to see settlements in Anatolia. During this period, about 300,000 to 200,000 years into pre-history, man took shelter in caves and learnt to make exas and sharp bladed weapons with flint-blades.
The middle stone age which follows, otherwise known as the Mesolithic period, was a time when pre-historic man showed signs of evolution, by painting the pictures of the animals he saw around him, animals and he both respected and feared, on the walls of his cave, making the first advances into the art of painting.
I will let images talk! However, please keep in mind that the following is only a small fraction of the great works of Anatolians. You should come to Turkey to see more.
The seated goddess figure dates to the late Neolithic era (5600 B.C.)
Silver stylised female figurine.
Early Bronze Age (3 millenium B.C.) Semi-circular head and upper torso, breasts and feet plated with gold. Eyes worked in blue and black metal.
Early Bronze Age (3 millenium B.C.) The standing figurine is naked, head and neck plated with gold, hair gathered at the neck and dresses to fall over the nape. Yhe figurine represents the mother goddess.
Dates to the second half of the III millenium B.C. Raised beak spout, cylidrical neck, spherical body and round base.
Early Bronz Age (second half of the 3 millenium). Inlayed with fine silver spirals on the neck, torso, forehead and tips of the horns. Cast and beaten bronze.
Bronze Solar Symbol
Dating from the second half of the third millenium B.C., it contains triangular divisions, and is set on an 'H' shaped base.
Relief of the God Sarruma and king Tuthalia IV
The god is short skirted, wears pointed shoes and carries a sword on his right hip. Resting his left hand on the King's shoulder, he both protects him and acts as his guide.
Figurine of a seated lion
An ivory figure of Urartu origin thought to have been part of a pece of jewellery. It dates to the second half of the 8th century B.C.
Figurine of a lion
Urartu ivory figure, dating to the end of the 8th century B.C. Incised and cast. A typical Urartian lion motif, from a piece of jewellery.
A fine hammered vessel in the form of a ram's head of outer and inner pieces of folded together at the rim. The body is ribbed by parallel band and bears rosettes below the rim. It dates to the end of the 8th century B.C.
Small pitcher with trefoil mouth
Beaten bronze. Vertical ribbing on the neck and drop-shaped petals on the body. It dates to the end of the 8 century B.C.
The figure of Alexander
Dates to the last quarter of the 4th century B.C.
Portrait of a young athlete
Dates to the end of the 1 st century B.C. The young athlete is shown resting after exertion. The figure stands, leaning against a pillar, and represents a youth of 12-14 years of age. The statue dates to the early imperial Roman period.
The Anastasis fresco, Kariye
The figure of Christ, dressed in white, draws Adam and Eve from the grave. Hell is portrayed beneath the feet of Christ.
Elmali Church Dating to the 11 century, it has a large and small apse, cross-vaulted and flanked by four columns, and a central dome. The frescos in this church are most representative of II century style of all the churches in Goreme, Nevsehir.
Sumela Monastry This is set on a sheer rock face, in the region of Trabzon. It was founded by two monks, Varnena and Sofranios by hollowing out the rock face of the cliff at a height of 1300 m. The frescos of the monastery illustrated scenes from the Christian cycle and the Old Testament.
St. Sophia (Ayasofya)
First built by Constantine I, the church was restored by Theodosius II, and rebuilt in 537 by Justiniamus after it had been destroyed in a fire in 532. Butresses and and minarets were added during the Ottoman period.
The Ishak Pasa Palace
This palace, which is situated in eastern Turkey near the Irano-Russian border, stands on the crest of a ridge overlooking the town of Dogubeyazit. It dates to 1781. Built by the Cildiroglu chieftain Ishak Pasa II, grandson of the Ottoman governer of Georgia, Ishak Pasa I, this Seljuk style castle covers an area of 7600 m2. The architect is unknown.
Ridvaniye mosque is flanked by a pool containing sacred fish and surrounded by a madrasa complex. This mosque and its fish are the symbol of Urfa. It dates to 18 century.
Dolmabahce Palace was built between 1843 and 1856. The palace contains a selamlik or male quarters, a grand hall, a harem and apartments for the crown princes. Dolmabahce, like the other Ottoman palaces of the period such as Beylerbeyi palace and the royal lodge at Kucuksu, reflect the Ottoman Europeanised taste of that era.
The Sultanahmet Mosque It is founded on one of the seven hills of Istanbul. The architect Mehmed Aga began the construction in 1609, and the architect poet and inlayer completed this great work in 1617. An imperial lodge, school, service koshk and single and double storied shops were included in the complex, which spread over the area aorund the mosque.
The Selimiye Mosque, Edirne
The mosque was built during the reign of Selim II (1569-1575) by the architect Sinan. It is an eight-pier mosque. The Selimiye was conseived of as part of a complex, including a school, Kor'an college, school of traditions and other public buildings.
(62) The tomb of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, Konya. The first architect of the tomb was Bedreddin Tebrizi.The present interior is embellished with ornamentation from succesive periods.
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